Umu has two demonstratives determiners.

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haza
• here
• in, at or to this place or position
• originally
• current
• belonging to the present time

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vöna
vna
• there
• over there

Unlike English, they cannot appear as independent noun phrases. Here’s how not to use them:

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*jöma haza
*good this
*This is good.

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*höra vöna
*pig that
*That is a pig.

Instead, they must be paired with a classifier.

Three General Classifiers

In addition to its rich set of nominal classifiers, Umu has three general classifiers. These three classifiers can replace any noun as well as all the other classifiers.

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nöni
nni

• small thing
• maximally general inanimate classifier

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jörö
jl | il

• body
• maximally general animate classifier

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munö
mun
• person
• maximally general human classifier

Here’s the correct way:

Here’s This

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jöma nöni haza
jma nni.háza

good CL.INANIM here
This (thing) is good.

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höra jörö haza
la jl.láza

pig CL.ANIM here
This is the pig.

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janö munö haza
jan mũ.láza

Jan CL.HUM here
This is Jan.

Thereʼs That

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jötö nöni vöna
it nni.vná

yam CL.INANIM there
That is a yam.

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‘ajö ‘ö’o ‘ömö jörö vöna
‘áj.wo.wmö jl.vná

horse GEN\3 PL CL.ANIM there
That is their horse.

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mari ‘öme munö vöna
mári.wme mũ.vná

mother GEN\1 CL.HUM there
That is my mother.

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