A B D E F G H I J K L M N Ng O Ö P R S T U V W X Z ‘
The present-day Umu alphabet took shape shortly after contact, as a system for accurately transcribing Umu glyphs. It consists of 26 letters. Most are taken directly from Latin, the remaining are obtained using diacritic marks, a digraph, and the apostrophe.
|Aa||[a] as in ‘cot’|
|Bb||[b] as in ‘boy’||tense, initial only|
|Dd||[d] as in ‘dog’||tense, initial only|
|Ee||[ɛ] as in ‘bed’|
|Ff||[ɸ] as in ‘father’||initial only|
|Gg||[g] as in ’good’||tense, initial only|
|Hh||[ɦ] as in ‘behind’||lax|
|Ii||[i] as in ‘see’|
|Jj||[j] as in ‘yet’|
|Kk||[kʱ] as in ‘skip’
[gʱ] as in ’good’
| initial, lax
|Ll||[l] as in ‘pull’|
|Mm||[m] as in ‘mother’|
|Nn||[n] as in ‘not’|
|Ng ng||[ŋ] as in ‘sing’|
|Oo||[o] as in ‘vote’|
|Öö||[ɨ] as in ’roses’|
|Pp||[pʱ] as in ‘spin’
[bʱ] like in ‘boy’
|Rr||[ɾ] as in ’raton’||tap|
|Ss||[þʱ] as in ‘thinker’||lax, initial only|
|Tt||[tʱ] as in ‘stop’
[dʱ] like in ‘down’
| initial, lax
[ʨʱi] as in 知人 ‘chijin’
[ʧʱi] as in ‘cheap’
[ʦʱi] as in ‘bitsy’
[ʂʱi] as in 是 ‘shi’
|Uu||[u] as in ‘boot’|
|Vv||[vʱ] as in ‘vine’||lax|
|Ww||[w] as in ‘weta’|
|Xx||[x] as in ‘Bach’||initial only|
|Zz||[ðʱ] as in ‘other’||lax|
|‘||[ʔ] as in ‘uh-oh’|
Sounds affected by palatalization (di and ti) vary regionally in pronunciation. All variations are mutually intelligible and the different sounds remain orthographically indistinct.
This standardized orthography (in both the Umu alphabet and pseudoglyphs) unites all regional dialects despite the absence of any official standard pronunciation. The sounds [di] and [ti] have yet to appear in any variant.
Umu is a breathy language, similar to Korean. Most consonants are lax, which blurs the distinction between voiced and unvoiced.
Treat lax consonants as if they were followed by an breathy h and tense consonants like plain old voiced consonants like in English.
Some sounds that are distinct in English are merged in Umu. These pairs are:
k and g
t and d
p and b
Initially, they are lax and unvoiced. Between two vowels, they are lax and voiced. When final, they are unreleased.
pa ka = paka, sounds like paga, lax
ta tu = tetu, sounds like tedu, lax
ka pö = kap, sounds like kap , lax onset, unreleased final
Initial mutations cause the tense voiced stops b, g and d. They only occur initially and contrast their lax voiced medial counterparts.
The letters b, d, f, g, s and x are not actual phonemes but result from various initial mutations caused by the collapse of the vowel ö. For this reason, these consonants are less common and only occur initially.
The Glottal Stop, the Velar Nasal & W
In a number of dialects, the glottal stop ( ‘ ) is pronounced ng. In these dialects, the letter w is rendered ng as well.
This happens because the w sound comes from the collapse of ö near the glottal stop and another vowel (‘ö’V > wV and V‘ö > Vw). The results are diphthongs.
However, In dialects were ‘ is realized ng, no diphthongs are formed and ng remains ng.
‘aw or ngang
people, group, public
‘ara or ngara
tiw or ting
chief, head, elder, more
On this site, examples are given with the more standard ‘ and w, unless they are specific to the ng dialect. Just realize that in some areas, ng substitutes for both ‘ and w.