Here, we see how Umu treats definite and indefinite arguments.

In the last line, the girl is the topic, rather than the first person. The main verb undergoes reduplication to signal that its main argument ma I is the agent not the patient. This allows the topic ndi girl to act as patient, as topics are agents by default.


‘Ara viw ma.
boy see | 1
I see a boy.

Ndi viw ma.
girl see | 1
I see a girl.

‘Ara wan di viw ma.
boy and girl see | 1
I see a boy and a girl.

Jap vin di ‘ara.
can see girl | boy
The boy can see the girl.

Jap vin di wa ‘araw ma.
can see girl and boy | 1
I can see the girl and the boy.

Jap viviw man di.
can see.see 1 | girl
I can see the girl.